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Depression — Crise des années 1930

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1930 VOTEZ LIBÉRAL - Ne laissons pas rouiller les mailles de la chaine qu'a soudée le forgeron. LAC, Acc. No. 1996-76-13, Jimmy Frise 1930

1930? The Rt. Hon. R.B. Bennett, and his sister. LAC, C-21528

Single men's unemployed association parading in Toronto, 1930s, LAC C-29397

Montreal people eating at soup kitchen, LAC PA-168131

Unidentified man lying on a cot in an office, 1930-35, LAC C020594

1926-1934 Keep Trade in the Family :  keep trade in the family. Empire Marketing Board, LAC, Acc. No. 1983-27-272, Austin Cooper 1926-1934

"I would not like to live here [U.S.S.R.]. There are no smiling people, no gaiety, no whistling in the streets. If the people have any liberty, there is no sign of it apparent."
                                                                                                  Agnes Macphail

(words by Cecil Boone)
(Sung to the tune of ‘Kevin Barry’)

In a little mining village
Scarcely noticed on the map
Bourgeois guns were turned on workers
And their life’s blood there did sap.

No one dreamed of such a slaughter
In that town of Estevan.
That armed thugs with guns and bullets
Would shoot men with empty hands.

Just a protest from the miners.
And boss bullets then did fly,
Caring not who was the target
Or the number that would die

Blazing forth nine hundred bullets
Bodies full of lead did fill,
Murdered three, and wounded twenty-
But the Cause they could not kill.

Three more martyrs for the miners,
Three more murders for the boss
Brutal laws, to crush the workers
Who dare fight in Freedom’s cause.

As those miners lay a-dying
In their agony and pain
Whispered, “Though we die for freedom,
Yet we do not die in vain.”

“For we know our class will triumph
Whey they shall united stand;
They will tkde the world for labor
And the workers rule the land.

Then the workers’ day of vengeance
Will be proclaimed with each breath;
Labor’s cause is right and mighty
And beyond the reach of death.”

(from Canadian Miner, Calgary, 30 January 1932)

City of Vancouver Archives

"We aim to replace the present capitalist system, with its inherent injustice and inhumanity, by a social order from which the domination and exploitation of one class by another will be eliminated, in which economic planning will supersede unregulated private enterprise and competition, and in which genuine, democratic self government, based on economic equality will be possible."
                                                                     CCF preamble, Regina Manifesto, 1933


"We do not believe in change by violence. We consider that both the old parties in Canada are the instruments of capitalist interests . . . who finance them."
                                                                                  The Regina Manifesto, 1933

Interior of main sleeping hut, Relief Project No. 27, Dept. of National Defence,
LAC C-031058

Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King driving a wagon ("Bennett Buggy"). LAC C-087860, 27 July 1933

A family fleeing poverty and starvation in the Peace River, 1934 Glenbow Archives
McDermid Collection ND-3-6742

Empire Marketing Board, Empire Produce, 1926-34 LAC Acc. No. 1983-27-97

Empire Marketing Board, Buy Empire Every Day, 1926-34 LAC Acc. No.

"You don't have to know all about Social Credit before you vote for it, you don't have to understand electricity to use it . . . all you have to do is push the button and you get the light."
                                                                                      William Aberhart, 1934


"There are 731,000 in Alberta and it's our duty to look after them. It's funny in this province of ours there is a law that prevents you starving or ill-treating a dog, cow, or any other animal, and yet they allow people to go hungry, ill-clothed and suffer. Social Credit with its basic dividend to every man and woman of $25.00 per month starts out with the corrective measure at once. It places purchasing power in the hands of consumers."
                                                                                         William Aberhart, 1935

"Socialism and Social Credit. Two great reform movements. Born in the depression. One turned to the left, and one to the right, that’s all. That’s the only difference. They're both populist movements."
                                                       W. A. C. Bennett, The Sun, 5 September 1976

Relief camp workers clearing rocks, Canada. Dept. of National Defense/LAC/PA-036328.
To see more relief camp projects click on this image.

Saskatchewan Archives Board R-A1994

"There can be no permanent recovery without reform. And, to my mind, reform means Government intervention. It means Government control and regulation. It means the end of laissez fair."
                                                                                     Richard Bedford Bennett

Mayor Gerry McGeer read the riot act on 23 April 1935


Regina riot - R.B. Bennett's noisy collision with the Department. Royal Canadian Mounted Police, LAC  e004666101, June/July 1935

Stanley Park Vancouver June 1935, Glenbow Archives NA-3634-10

Regina riot. Royal Canadian Mounted Police, LAC e004666103, July 1935

"The strike is evidence that herding jobless citizens into isolated camps, putting them under something like military rule and discipline and paying them 20 cents a day for doing occasional jobs is a first class method of making converts for the Communist party."
                                                      John W. Dafoe, Winnipeg Free Press, 3 July 1935


"Dominion Day, 1935, our country's birthday, and what a birthday celebration it turned out to be . . . There were probably four or five hundred of us on Market Square [Regina] . . . The meeting  wasn't long under way  . . .  when four large furniture vans backed up, one to each corner of the Market Square . . . and out poured the Mounties, each armed with a baseball bat . . .  In less than ten minutes Market Square was a mass of writhing, groaning forms, like a battlefield."
                                                                                                Ronald Liversedge


"You [R. B. Bennett] referred to us as not wanting work. Give any of us work and see whether we will work. This is an insidious attempt to propagandize the press on your part, and anybody who professes to be premier and uses such despicable tactics is not fit to be premier of a Hottentot village."
                    Arthur R. (Slim) Evans, Communist leader of the On-to-Ottawa Trek, 1935

1936 Poster of the Dionne Quintuplets Reunion. LAC, R1300-1397 20th Century Fox 1936

Relief demonstration. Manifestation de la relève. LAC C-079022, Vancouver, 1937

Automobile Show in the Automotive Building at the Canadian National Exhibition, Toronto, Ont. LAC, PA-052897, Canadian National Exhibition, Pringle and Booth 1939