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The Emigrants' Welcome to Canada. L'accueil des immigrants au Canada. Acc. No. 1970-188-2056 Collection de Canadiana W.H. Coverdale Robert Cruikshank ca. 1820








There's No Living in England, So Here's Off For Canada. LAC, Acc. No. Acc. No. R9266-3509 Peter Winkworth Collection of Canadiana, 1833












Assiniboine Hunting Buffalo National Gallery of Canada, 1846




1851-56 Paul Kane Horse Race among the Blackfoot Indians National Gallery of Canada No. 6921








CIVILIZATION  AND BARBARISM, WINNIPEG, MANITOBA
William G. R. Hind, c. 1870, Baldwin Room, MTPL



AMERICAN  PROGRESS
John Gast, c. 1872, Library of Congress




                           FREE LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES
Canadian Illustrated News, Montreal 15th October 1870




Some of Miss Rye's emigrant girls. Quelques-unes des jeunes émigrantes sous les auspices de Mlle Rye. LAC, C-062672 Canadian Illustrated News, 1 May 1875











Crowfoot addressing the Marquis of Lorne; pow-wow at Blackfoot Crossing, Bow River, September 10, 1881. Crowfoot s'addressant au marquis de Lorne lors d'une assemblée d'Indiens à Blackfoot Crossing, en Alberta, le 10 septembre 1881.LAC, Acc. No. 1984-45-213, Sydney Prior Hall 10 September 1881




A Settler's Home near Carberry, Assiniboia District / La demeure d'un colon non loin de Carberry dans le district d'Assiniboia. LAC, Acc. No. 1989-446-22, Edward Roper 1887-1909




















Homesteading DSCN1711




Wagon DSCN1712























Doukhobor women are shown breaking the prairie sod by pulling a plough themselves, Thunder Hill Colony, Manitoba. c 1899 / Des femmes doukhobors labourent la prairie en tirant elles-mêmes une charrue, colonie de Thunder Hill (Manitoba), vers 1899. In 1898, 7,400 Doukhobors, translated literally from the Russian as "Spirit Wrestlers", escaped persecution by emigrating to what was to become Saskatchewan. Their motto:"Toil and peaceful life". LAC, C-000681




Galician immigrants at Immigration Sheds, Québec (Québec), 1900. LAC, C-004745







Breaking up the soil and bushes with horse drawn plough and axe, LAC PA-038567, 1920s?







"As long as I live, as long as I have power to use in the service of my country, I shall repel the idea of changing the nature of the different elements. I want the marble to remain the marble; I want the granite to remain the granite; I want the oak to remain the oak. I want the sturdy Scotsman to remain the Scotsman; I want the brainy Englishman to remain the Englishman; I want the warm-hearted Irishman to remain the Irishman; I want to take all three elements and build a nation that will be foremost amongst the great powers of the world."
                                                                  Wilfrid Laurier, speech 15 August 1900





"My countrymen are not only those in whose veins runs the blood of France. My countrymen are all those people, no matter what their race or language, whom the fortune of war, the twists and turns of fate, or their own choice, have brought among us."
                                                                                                    Wilfrid Laurier








A.G. Racey, The Englishman in Canada , 1901.








Canada the Granary of the World. Department of the Interior. LAC, Acc. No. R1300-483.1R, ca. 1903-1904




To Canada , Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, 1903




To Canada , Minister of the Interior,  Ottawa, 1903




To Canada , Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, 1903



To Canada , Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, 1903



"As George Foster calculated in 1912, Canada faced a comparatively more difficult task than the United States because while the Americans had ninety million people to assimilate one million newcomers annually, the Dominion with eight million had to absorb five hundred thousand each year. In other words, while the United States had ninety-two people to absorb each immigrant, Canada had only sixteen."
                                                                    Carl Berger, The Sense of Power, 1970




To Canada , Minister of the Interior, Ottawa, 1903












University of Alberta Library




Immigrants Dock at Quebec. Le quai d'immigrants à Québec. LAC, Acc. No. R9266-273 Collection de Canadiana Peter Winkworth, Sydney Higham ca. 1904



























"I think a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for ten generations, with a stout wife and half dozen children, is good quality."
                                                 Sir Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Interior, 1896-1905




Settlers from the United States crossing the western prairies heading for the wheat fields. LAC, C-011553 The Canadian Magazine , 1906







"The first and most imperative condition is that the immigrant shall give this country his first allegiance . . . unless he is prepared to be a Canadian first . . . he is in this country under false pretenses. He should pack his trunk and go back where he belongs. He is not wanted here."
                                                              John W. Defoe, Winnipeg Free Press, 1913





THE MINISTER: Here is beautiful land that is waiting for immigrants.

BAPTISTE: You don’t need to empty the prisons of Europe to find somebody to give the land to. I have a family to establish.





"A Girl From Canada". Woman costumed by H.M. Murray, the Canadian Government agent in Exeter, England, to advertise Canadian prosperity in a parade, 1907. LAC, C-0063256 T. A. Chandler September 1907





















































































Indian immigrants on board the KOMAGATA MARU in English Bay, Vancouver,British Columbia. 1914. Immigrants indiens à bord du KOMAGATA MARU dans la baie English, Vancouver, Colombie-Britannique, 1914. LAC PA-034015























H. Glynn-Ward, Writing on the Wall, The Sun Publishing Co., Vancouver, 1921








Minister of Immigration and Colonization, 1924, Library and Archives Canada




Glenbow Archives na-3818-2
























Family of Stefan Waskiewicz on homestead 1929-30 LAC, PA-186881




White Star Line - Canada's Call to Women. LAC, Acc. No. 1990-119-1, 1920/30




Ukrainian women cutting logs, Athabasca, Alberta.  LAC, C-019134 C.N.R. ca. 1930






















"No country could open its doors wide enough to take in the hundreds of thousands of Jewish people who want to leave Europe; the line must be drawn somewhere."
                                                                            Frederick Charles Blair, 1939




























The United Nations Fight for Freedom. Office of War Information, Washington, D.C. featuring the Statue of Liberty and the flags of countries involved  in the Allied war effort, LAC, Acc. No. 1981-32-16 Source: Harry Mayerovitch, Montréal, Québec S. Broder 1942























Mr. Lester B. Pearson addressing one of the committees at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco. M. Lester B. Pearson s'adressant à l'un des comités à la Conférence des Nations Unies sur l'Organisation internationale, à San Francisco. LAC, C-018532 United Nations 1945











"I liken Canada to a garden . . . a garden into which have been transplanted the hardiest and brightest flowers from many lands, each retaining in its new environment the best of the qualities for which it was loved and prized in its native land."
                                                                                             John G. Diefenbaker























































"Leave all your hates behind.
Bring us only your love."

                                          Gregory Clark











"Is there a theme running through Canadian history? . . . So many of us here are descendants of a great migration of the unwanted and the disenfranchised, the landless and the persecuted, that it has shaped the collective identity . . . We are the children of those who stayed, the desperate, the adventurous, and those who sought nothing more than a better life for their children . . . The river that runs through Canadian history is a current of refuge and hope."
                                                                             Marc Starowicz, Making History
























Pier 21, Library and Archives Canada/C-0063256





































































Prime Minister John G. Diefenbaker with "Bill of Rights". Le Premier ministre John G. Diefenbaker avec "déclaration des droits". LAC, PA-112659, Duncan Cameron 5 September 1958















































































































"For the past 150 years nationalism has been a retrograde idea. By an accident Canada has found itself approximately seventy-five years ahead of the rest of the world in the formation of a multinational state and I happen to believe that the hope of mankind lies in multiculturalism."
                                                                                             Pierre Elliot Trudeau

 

"Canada was the first country in the world to pass a national Multicultural Act and the first to establish a Department of Multiculturalism. The word 'multiculturalism' itself was coined in Canada."
                                                                      Will Ferguson, Why I Hate Canadians







































"Our great advantage, over other nations, is our tradition of diversity, which was born of the historic necessity of English-and French-speaking Canadians working together and which blossomed into a basic respect for the multitude of cultures which make up Canada."
                                                                                                          Joe Clark

 

"I think of Canada now as a river. A river is always changing and becoming something else. If you watch what is happening in Toronto you are going to get a picture of what is happening to all Canada and how it will move over the next 50 years."
                                                                                                Morley Callaghan








Copyright; Canadian Post Corporation, 1987, e000008290
















LAC Canadian Post Corporation



LAC 1995 Canada Post Corporation, e000008781



"Canada has no cultural unity, no linguistic unity, no religious unity, no economic unity, not geographic unity! All it has is unity."
                                                                                      Kenneth Boulding, 1957

 

"For although there are two official languages, there is no official culture, nor does any ethnic group take precedence over any other. No citizen or group of citizens is other than Canadian, and should be treated fairly."
                                                                                     Pierre Elliot Trudeau, 1971



"We have in Canada the ability to bring together two European peoples, complemented by cultures from all around the world, and with an indigenous population that has been here for tens of thousands of years. We have the ability to create a culture that will be different from others because we will take from each other and we will give to each other, but we will not have to crush each other."
                                                                      George Erasmus, 29 November 1990



"The single issue of immigration and citizenship diversity . . . is based on the idea of a an inclusive circle that expands and adapts as new people join us."
                                                                                              John Ralston Saul



"Canada has an aboriginal past, a bilingual present and a multicultural future."

                                                                                           Gary Filmon, 1990

 

"We have forgotten that one cannot forge a nation by encouraging separateness under the rubric of multiculturalism. A person's roots are a private matter, not a subject of public subsidy."
                                                                                            Barbara Amiel, 1990

 

"Canada is today the most successful pluralist society on the face of the globe. That is something unique to Canada. It is an amazing global asset."
                                                                                          Aga Khan IV, 2002


                        Canadian Immigration 1860-2010