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Riel and Manitoba — Riel et Manitoba

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Multiple Perspectives - perspectives multiple


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Library and Archive Canada, Acc. No. 1970-50-2.6




Scottish settlers and "Hector", LAC, copyright; Canada Post Corporation




Landing of the Selkirk Settlers at York Factory, 1812. T. W. Mitchell, A Picture History of Canada, 1942








Lord Selkirk naming Kildonan, 1817. LAC, C-016750, Charles W. Jefferys, 1920s or 1930s?




Protestant Church and Mission School, Red River Colony. LAC Acc. No. R9266-1565 Peter Winkworth Collection of Canadiana, ca. 1820-40




An Indian removing in the summer with his wife and family. LAC Acc. No. Acc. No. R9266-4116, Peter Rindisbacher, 1821




A family from the tribe of the wild Sautaux Indians on the Red River. Une famille appartenant à la tribu des Indiens Saulteux qui vivent en liberté dans la région de la rivière Rouge. LAC Acc. No. 1988-250-28, Peter Rindisbacher, 1821




Winter fishing on ice of Assynoibain & Red River. Pêche d'hiver sur la glace des rivières Assiniboine et Rouge. LAC Acc. No. 1988-250-31, Peter Rindesbacher, 1821








Trapper's Bride, Alfred Jacob Miller 




Library and Archives Canada 1969-4-35




Colonie de la rivière Rouge, à Saint-Boniface. St. Boniface, Red River Settlement. LAC Acc. No. 1950-63-7, William Henry Edward Napier, 1858



 











 
















"Manitobah" Manitoba's settlers house and Red River cart, 1862,
LAC Acc. No. 1937-283-1 




Buffalo Meat Drying, White Horse Plains, Red River. Séchage de la viande de bison, plaines White Horse, rivière Rouge. LAC Acc. No. 1989-492-2, William Armstrong, 1899




On the White Horse Plains near Old Fort Garry, 1862,
Library and Archives Canada Acc. No. 1981-55-1




Camping on the Prairie. Campement dans les Prairies. LAC Acc. No. 1937-291-1, William G. R. Hind, ca.1863




Prairie Indian Encampment at Red River. Campement d'Indiens des Prairies à la rivière Rouge. LAC Acc. No. 1989-487-1, William Armstrong, 1868




Sir George E Cartier had been a member of the Commission sent to England to negotiate for the transfer of the North-West Territory to the Dominion and the surrender of the rights of the Hudson Bay Company. The successful result of the mission was now announced to Parliament. The conditions agreed upon involved a payment by the Dominion Government of £300,000.























"I have always feared the entrance of the North-West into Confederation, because I have always believed that the French-Canadian element would be sacrificed." 
                                                                      Bishop Tache to Cartier, 7 Oct. 1869







"You go no farther!"
Louis Riel. standing on British surveyor's chain, 11 October 1869




1869 Louis Riel and his Council, Library and Archives Canada

"It is altogether too much of a joke to think of a handful of people barring the way to the onward progress of British institutions and British people on the pretense that the wide continent is theirs."
                                                                   The Globe, Toronto, 17 November 1869




LAC, Acc. No. R10770-11869-1870 Moses in Moab looking to Washington. McDougal and Cameron attempting to cross a fence and enter Canada, with Riel in the background near Fort Garry waving a sword and threatening them.



"The French half-breeds at Red River are pertinaciously resolved to keep the North West a buffalo reserve forever."
                                                                                  Sir John A. Macdonald, 1869

 

"The métis were not slaves, to be bought and sold with this land! They were free men, they always had been. They must fight back now and establish their rights while they had the chance. As the English had done in England, as the Canadians had done, too, they must secure their freedom from arbitrary authority before it was too late."
                                                                                               E. B. Osler, 1961

 

"For the first time, [when Louis Riel stopped the survey of his cousin's land] men from Ontario had been forced to acknowledge that the métis had a claim to this land; and these métis had been shown that they should not bow to the land-grabbing immigrants from the East."
                                                                                              E. B. Osler, 1961




Panoramic view on Fort Garry, Winnepeg, and St. Boniface Manitoba ca. 1870,
Library and Archives Canada C-002823
























Thomas Scott



"The métis are a pack of cowards. They will not dare to shoot me."
                                                        Thomas Scott, 4 March 1870








The execution of Thomas Scott, LAC, C-118610, 1870



"The execution of Thomas Scott ruined Riel's name forever in Eastern Canada."
                                                          Edward McCourt, Revolt in the West, 1958

 

"[The execution of Thomas Scott] was Riel's one great political blunder."
                                                                                   Lewis H. Thomas

 

"I swear . . . before God, shooting Thomas Scott was not a crime. It was a political necessity. I commanded the shooting, believing it necessary to save the lives of thousands."
                                                                                                           Louis Riel







Manitoba Act, 12 May 1870
Whereas it is probable that Her Majesty The Queen may, pursuant to the Constitution Act, 1867, be pleased to admit Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory into the Union or Dominion of Canada, before the next Session of the Parliament of Canada: . . .
Therefore Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:
31. And whereas, it is expedient, towards the extinguishment of the Indian Title to the lands in the Province, to appropriate a portion of such ungranted lands, to the extent of one million four hundred thousand acres thereof, for the benefit of the families of the half-breed residents, it is hereby enacted, that, under regulations to be from time to time made by the Governor General in Council, the Lieutenant-Governor shall select such lots or tracts in such parts of the Province as he may deem expedient, to the extent aforesaid, and divide the same among the children of the half-breed heads of families residing in the Province at the time of the said transfer to Canada, and the same shall be granted to the said children respectively, in such mode and on such conditions as to settlement and otherwise, as the Governor General in Council may from time to time determine.




Surveys and Mapping Branch, Ottawa, 1969




Colonel Garnet Wolseley led an expedition from Canada to Fort Garry in 1870




Wolseley's Troops enter the Fort, 1870. LAC, Acc. No. 1934-39, ca. 1938



"We may be a small community, and a half-breed community at that – but we are men, free and spirited men, and we will not allow even the Dominion of Canada to trample on our rights."
                                                                                New Nation, 14 January 1870

 

"He [McDougall] looked at the problems confronting him from a regional point of view. As far as he was concerned, what was good for the people of Ontario was good for all of Canada – including the natives of Red River whom he was about to rule."
                                                                                               E. B. Osler, 1961

 

"These impulsive half-breeds . . . must be kept down by a strong hand until they are swamped by the influx of settlers."
                                                          Sir John A. Macdonald, letter, 23 Feb. 1870











"Most of us felt that we had to settle accounts quickly with Riel, who had murdered the Englishman, Mr. Scott. Had we caught him, he would have had no mercy."
                                                                                        Colonel Garnet Wolseley




At Elbow of North Saskatchewen River, Library and Archives Canada, PA 138573







"It [the rising led by Louis Riel in 1869] was the inevitable reaction of a small group, conscious of its own identity, against the threat of absorption by a larger group, of a weak culture against a strong and aggressive one, of a simple economy against a highly competitive one."
                                                                                        George F. G. Stanley

"The march of civilization in the North-West then began (1869-70], and today, instead of being a vast hunting ground and wilderness, it is the home of thousands of thrifty settlers, and with the great transcontinental railway, from ocean to ocean, placed Canada in the proud position of being one of the brightest jewels of the British crown."
                                                                                                   Alexander Begg








Studio portrait taken in Ottawa after Riel was elected the Member of Parliament for Provencher, Manitoba, 1873, Notman Studio, Library and Archives Canada, Acc. no. 1957-049, C-002048








Treaty medal, 1872











 



"I struggled not only for myself, but I struggled for the rights, for the inauguration of the principles of responsible and constitutional government in Manitoba."
                                                                                                  Louis Riel, 1885

 

"I know that through the grace of God I am the founder of Manitoba."
                                                          Louis Riel, speech, 31 July 1885

 

"There was concluded [the Manitoba Act of 1870] the Canadian government's first essay on territorial administration. The initial venture in applying measures conceived in Ottawa without reference to the experience and convictions of the North-West population had ended in dramatic defeat. The lesson, however, was never completely take to heart."
                                                                                          Lewis Herbert Thomas